WaterStat - water footprint statistics

WaterStat is the world’s most comprehensive water footprint database. All datasets included come from peer-reviewed research and are based on the Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard. Water footprint statistics can be used to inform public policies or company business strategies, to raise awareness, or as input to research projects.

Overview of datasets in WaterStat

Product water footprint statistics

Monthly blue water footprint statistics (30’x30’ grid)

National water footprint statistics

International virtual water flow statistics

Water scarcity statistics

Water pollution level statistics


How to refer to the data

Please refer to the original source(s) as indicated for each separate dataset. All datasets are published under Creative Commons BY-SA license.


Product water footprint statistics

Statistics on green, blue and grey water footprints of crops, derived crop products, biofuels, livestock products, and industrial products. All data are available at national and sub-national level.

Water footprints of crops and derived crop products (1996-2005)

Images download, 2.4 MB
Spreadsheet download, 28.7 MB
Rastermap download, 160.9 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600. Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices

Water footprints of biofuels (1996-2005)

Spreadsheet download, 7.7 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600. Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices

Water footprints of farm animals and animal products (1996-2005)

Spreadsheet download, 3.2 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products, Ecosystems, 15(3): 401–415. Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices

Water footprints of industrial products (1996-2005)

Spreadsheet download, 0.1 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands. Download paper | Download appendices


Monthly blue water footprint statistics (30’x30’ grid)

Statistics on total monthly blue water footprints of production (m3/month) at a 30×30 arc minute grid scale. The data are averages over the period 1996-2005. The total blue water footprint of production is the sum of blue water footprint for agriculture, industry and domestic sectors per grid cell.

Total monthly blue water footprints of production (1996-2005)

Shapefile download, 2.7 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands. Download paper | Download appendices


National water footprint statistics

Statistics on green, blue and grey water footprints of national production and consumption.

Water footprints of national consumption (1996-2005)

Images download, 0.2 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.2 MB
Shapefile download, 1.6 MB

Water footprints of national production (1996-2005)

Images download, 0.3 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.1 MB
Shapefile download, 47.7 MB

When using these data refer to: Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) 'The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237.
Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices


International virtual water flow statistics

Statistics on international virtual water trade flows and on water savings related to international trade.

Virtual-water flows related to international trade in crop, animal and industrial products (1996-2005).

Images download, 9.3 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.2 MB

When using these data refer to: Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) 'The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237. Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices

National and global water savings related to trade in agricultural and industrial products (1996-2005).

Images download, 0.6 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.1 MB

When using these data refer to: Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) 'The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237. Download paper | Download background report | Download appendices


Water scarcity statistics

Unique datasets showing blue water scarcity in the world on a monthly basis, both at 30×30 arc minute resolution and per river basin.

Monthly blue water scarcity at grid scale at 30 × 30 arc minute (1996-2005)

Images download in Power Point Presentation slides format, 4.8 MB:
Shapefile download, 1.8 MB:

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2016) Four billion people facing severe water scarcity, Science Advances, 2(2): e1500323. Download paper

Monthly blue water scarcity for the world’s major river basins (1996-2005)

Images download, 0.8 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.6 MB
Shapefile download, 2.5 MB

When using these data refer to: Hoekstra, A.Y., Mekonnen, M.M., Chapagain, A.K., Mathews, R.E. and Richter, B.D. (2012) 'Global monthly water scarcity: Blue water footprints versus blue water availability’, PLoS ONE 7(2): e32688. Download paper | Download background report


Water pollution level statistics

Download here statistics on water pollution level per river basin.

Global grey water footprint and Water Pollution Levels (WPL) related to anthropogenic Nitrogen loads to fresh water at 5 × 5 arc minute grid scale (2002-2010)

Shapefile download (6 MB)
Grey water footprint map (image) 0.3 MB
Water Pollution Level map (image) 0.3 MB

When using these data refer to: Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2015) Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water, Environmental Science and Technology, 49(21): 12860−12868. Download paper | Supporting information

Water Pollution Level (WPL) for N and P in the world’s river basins (2000)

Images download, 1.8 MB
Spreadsheet download, 0.2 MB
Shapefile download, 0.6 MB

When using these data refer to: Liu, C., Kroeze, C., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Gerbens-Leenes, W. (2012) 'Past and future trends in grey water footprints of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to major world rivers’, Ecological Indicators, 18: 42-49. Download paper